Graphene production processes

How to differentiate Graphene

How Graphene is produced

for the first time ever in 2004. This method proved that graphene was not just a theory, but a reality.

The Scotch tape method is not transferable to industrial production of graphene, but it was a stepping-stone. Several different production processes have emerged since graphene was first isolated.

Two different strategies can be applied:

1-Bottom Up:

Graphene produced from gases by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD)

2-Top Down:

Graphene produced from graphite by exfoliation (chemical, mechanical, oxidative)

These different processes produce various forms of graphene.


We can segment the graphene family in 2 ways:

Material Thickness


Material Thickness

Graphene is limited to 10 layers, so is less than 3 nm thick. Today, very few companies are able to produce this type of graphene.

  • SLG: Single Layer Graphene (1 Layer)
  • FLG: Few Layer Graphene (2-5 Layers)
  • MLG: MultiLayer Graphene (<10 Layers)
  • GNP: Graphite NanoPlates (<250 Layers)
Type of graphene

For such a 2D material, thickness is a critical parameter. The thinner the material, the better the properties will be.

Purity of Graphene

Functional groups, even in low quantities, decrease its performance as an anticorrosion agent or thermal and electrical conductor.

The degree of functionalization and the level of defects depend greatly on the method of production.


Graphene purity decrease

Comparing Graphene

When choosing graphene, you should be careful of the quality and scalability of the graphene. It all depends on the application and how you want to use graphene.

ProcessesThickness% PurityScalability
CVD1 Layer> 99.99%
Chemical exfoliation*2-8 Layers> 99.95%++
Mechanical exfoliation2-249 Layers> 99%++
rGO1-249 Layers95% < rGO < 99%++
GO2-249 Layers< 80%++
*Chemical exfoliation is patented and industrialized only by Carbon Waters
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