Chemical Exfoliation

Chemical Exfoliation production process

Chemical exfoliation is a top-down approach to obtain graphene in dispersion from graphite. This method is currently mastered by Carbon Waters. This production route takes advantage of the fact that potassium intercalation compounds dissolve spontaneously in polar solvents.

Chemical exfoliation leads to a solution of charged graphene flakes, merely stable under inert conditions. This major drawback was recently solved by a CNRS team thank to a simple, but beautiful, transfer into water under specific conditions.

The resulting aqueous dispersion of graphene is extremely stable without the need for surfactants or organic solvents. Furthermore, the chemical exfoliation is highly efficient.

This aqueous graphene dispersion combines the advantages of different families of graphene materials: high quality of graphene while maintaining
the versatility of a dispersion.

This key innovation in the field of producing graphene via exfoliation methods opens possibilities to use graphene for industrial applications, e.g. as additives for paints or composites.

Carbon Waters’ ongoing achievement is to transpose this process to an industrial scale.


Production Process


CVD is the only top-down production method for graphene which is used in an industrial environment.

Production Process

Mechanical Exfoliation

This exfoliation method was described in 2008 to answer the needs for a scalable production method.

Production Process

Oxidative Exfoliation

For this exfoliation method, graphite is commonly oxidized under harsh conditions to make graphene.